Fundamentals in the chemistry of cyanine dyes: A review - ScienceDirect Fundamentals in the chemistry of cyanine dyes: A review - ScienceDirect

Synthesis of cyanine dyes, cyanine dyes

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The fluorochrome label allows for a single-reagent addition to assess caspase activity in situ by fluorescence microscopy. For reproduction of material from all other RSC journals and books: Bringing the acyl fluoride functionalities into contact with the amino group results in the displacement of the fluoride and the formation of an amide bond.

Cyanine dyes - an overview | ScienceDirect Topics

A method for activating a dye comprising the steps of: The method includes the steps of: It is a surprise discovery of the present invention that cyanine dyes activated by acyl fluoride groups have specific reactivity towards nitrogen nucleophiles compared to oxygen nucleophiles, while remaining stable in aqueous solutions under labeling conditions.

The next day, additional anhydrous diethyl ether was added to the supernatant 1: Despite their high reactivity, acyl di fluorides of cyanine dyes are surprisingly stable at ambient conditions and, when stored in a cool dry environment or under argon, have extended shelf lives.

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The activated dye Synthesis of cyanine dyes claim 1wherein said dye is selective towards nitrogen nucleophiles over competing species.

The measurement can be made by determining the relative brightness or dimness of the luminescence of the cells. The method comprises the steps of: After 10 min of centrifugation at rpm, the diethyl ether was decanted so that the precipitates could be redissolved in a minimal volume of dry dimethylformamide and pooled.

The method ofwherein both R3 and R4 are alkylcarboxylates. Inappropriate cell death creates abnormal patterns of apoptosis. Of particular interest are the cyanine and related dyes.

Synthesis and optical properties of cyanine dyes with an aromatic azonia skeleton

The precipitate was dried under a stream of argon. They are not especially photostable, and their solubility properties are not optimal for many uses that would involve fluorescence detection of labeled materials.

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As shown in Fig. Amino acid fluorides are known as effective reagents for peptide coupling due to their selective reactivity towards amino groups Carpino et al.

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B Quantitative Acridine Orange Assay The overall approach for this quantitative acridine orange assay is depicted in Fig. It is apparent from Examples 1 and 2 that when less than 1: The method of claim 28wherein said biological material is selected from the group consisting of proteins, cells, amino-modified nucleic acids and combinations thereof.

This is because the multiplicity uses and applications of these dyes in several fields of science, technology engineering, pharmacology and medicine. The term sulfonate is meant to include sulfonic acid, because the sulfonate group is merely ionized sulfonic acid.

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For the purposes of increasing water solubility, reducing unwanted nonspecific binding or reducing the interactions between two or more reactive chromophores, R1, R2, R3, and R4 groups can be independently selected from the well-known polar and electrically charged chemical groups.

It was, however, unclear whether this indicated preferential usage of diacyl fluoride during labeling or this was merely an artifact of the purification step. After standing overnight and the addition of one additional volume of anhydrous diethyl ether, the supernatant is aspirated with argon and dried under vacuum.

All alkyl and acyl groups of the dye generally possess one to twelve carbon atoms.

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The method of claim 12wherein one or both R3 and R4 have a substituent group on the alkylcarbon adjacent to the acyl fluoride which is inert towards and has a sterical structure that permits aminoacylation of the acyl fluoride group. The method ofwherein the activated dye is precipitated by adding diethyl ether.

Related terms:

The method of claim 18 Synthesis of cyanine dyes, wherein said cyanine dye is selected from the group consisting of Cy5, benzyl Cy5, dibenzyl Cy5, Cy7, benzyl Cy7 and dibenzyl Cy7.

TLC was used to analyze the obtained product as described in detail in Example 1. The supernatant was removed and the precipitate was resuspended in anhydrous diethyl ether. VolumeOctoberPages Fundamentals in the chemistry of cyanine dyes: